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Introduction of several metallic materials
Metallic material is very important for a manufacturer to produce quality hand tools, it determines the main properties and lifttime. Actually a hardware tool made of good material cost too high. So we need to chose a right material, which can make quality tool and be with acceptable cost.

CHISEN® Tools usually use carbon steel, chrome-vanadium steel, stainless steel, chrome-molybdenum steel, manganese steel, etc. I will introduce those material.

Introduction

AISI 1045 steel is a medium tensile steel supplied in the black hot rolled or normalized condition. It has a tensile strength of 570 - 700 MPa and Brinell hardness ranging between 170 and 210.

AISI 1045 steel is characterized by good weldability, good machinability, and high strength and impact properties in either the normalized or hot rolled condition.

AISI 1045 steel has a low through-hardening capability with only sections of size around 60 mm being recommended as suitable for tempering and through-hardening. However, it can be efficiently flame or induction hardened in the normalized or hot rolled condition to obtain surface hardnesses in the range of Rc 54 - Rc 60 based on factors such as section size, type of set up, quenching medium used etc.

AISI 1045 steel lacks suitable alloying elements and hence does not respond to the nitriding process.

Chemical Composition

Element Content
Carbon, C 0.420 - 0.50 %
Iron, Fe 98.51 - 98.98 %
Manganese, Mn 0.60 - 0.90 %
Phosphorous, P ≤ 0.040 %
Sulfur, S ≤ 0.050 %

Physical Properties

Physical Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.87 g/cc 0.284 lb/in3

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties Metric Imperial
Hardness, Brinell 163 163
Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell hardness) 184 184
Hardness, Rockwell B (Converted from Brinell hardness) 84 84
Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell hardness) 170 170
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 565 MPa 81900 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield 310 MPa 45000 psi
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm) 16.0 % 16.0 %
Reduction of Area 40.0 % 40.0 %
Modulus of Elasticity (Typical for steel) 200 GPa 29000 ksi
Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio (Typical For Steel) 0.290 0.290
Shear Modulus (Typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi

Machining

AISI 1045 steel has good machinability in normalized as well as the hot rolled condition. Based on the recommendations given by the machine manufacturers, operations like tapping, milling, broaching, drilling, turning and sawing etc. can be carried out on AISI 1045 steel using suitable feeds, tool type and speeds.

Welding

Certain facts about welding of AISI 1045 steel are:

  • AISI 1045 steel is readily welded when correct procedure is followed.
  • Welding AISI 1045 steel in through-hardened, tempered and flame or induction hardened condition is not recommended.
  • Low hydrogen electrodes are preferred for welding AISI 1045 steel.
  • The workpiece is
    • Pre-heated at 200°C–300°C (392°F - 572°F)
    • Maintained at the same temperature during welding
    • Cooled slowly using sand, ashes etc and
    • Stress relieved at 550°C - 660°C (1022°F - 1220°F).

Heat Treatment

AISI 1045 is subjected to the following processes:

  • Forging
  • Annealing
  • Normalizing
  • Stress relieving
  • Hardening
  • Tempering

Forging

  • Heat to 850°C - 1250°C (1562°F - 2282°F)
  • Hold until the temperature is uniform
  • Cool in furnace

Annealing

  • Heat to 800°C - 850°C (1472°F - 1562°F)
  • Hold until the temperature is uniform
  • Cool in furnace.

Normalizing

  • Heat to 870°C - 920°C (1598°F-1688°F)
  • Hold until the temperature is uniform
  • Soak for 10 - 15 minutes
  • Cool in still air

Stress Relieving

  • Heat to 550°C - 660°C (1022°F - 1220°F)
  • Hold until the temperature is uniform
  • Soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section
  • Cool in still air

Hardening

  • Heat to 820°C - 850°C (1508°F - 1562°F)
  • Hold until the temperature is uniform
  • Soak for 10 - 15 minutes per 25mm of section
  • Quench in water or brine

Tempering

  • Re-heat to 400°C - 650°C (752°F - 1202°F ) as required
  • Hold until the temperature is uniform
  • Soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section
  • Cool in still air

Applications

AISI 1045 is widely used for all industrial applications requiring more wear resistance and strength. Typical applications of AISI 1045 are as follows:

Gears Pins Rams
Shafts Rolls Sockets
Axles Spindles Worms
Bolts Ratchets Light gears
Studs Crankshafts Guide rods
Connecting rods Torsion bars Hydraulic clamps

Introduction

Carbon steels are the steels having carbon as the major alloying element. They also contain up to 1.2% manganese and 0.4% silicon. In addition, the residual elements like copper, molybdenum, aluminium, chromium and nickel are present in these steels.

The following sections will give an overview of AISI 1055 carbon steel in detail.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of AISI 1055 carbon steel is outlined in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 98.41-98.9
Manganese, Mn 0.60-0.90
Carbon, C 0.50-0.60
Sulfur, S ≤ 0.050
Phosphorous, P ≤ 0.040

Physical Properties

The physical properties of AISI 1055 carbon steel are tabulated below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in3

Mechanical Properties

The following table shows mechanical properties of the cold drawn AISI 1055 carbon steel.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength, ultimate 660 MPa 95700 psi
Tensile strength, yield 560 MPa 81200 psi
Modulus of elasticity 190-210 GPa 29700-30458 ksi
Bulk modulus (typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Poissons ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 10% 10%
Reduction of area 40% 40%
Hardness, Brinell 197 197
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 219 219
Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 92 92
Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only) 13 13
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 207 207
Machinability (based on AISI 1212 steel. as 100 machinability) 55 55

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of AISI 1055 carbon steel are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal expansion co-efficient 11 µm/m°C 6.11 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity 49.8 W/mK 346 BTU in/hr.ft2.°F

Other Designations

Other designations that are equivalent to AISI 1055 carbon steel include the following:

  • DIN 1.1209
  • ASTM A29
  • ASTM A510
  • ASTM A576
  • ASTM A682
  • FED QQ-S-700 (1055)
  • SAE J403
  • SAE J412
  • SAE J414


Introduction

Alloy steels are designated by AISI four-digit numbers. They are more susceptible to mechanical and heat treatments than carbon steels. They comprise different types of steels with compositions which exceed the limitations of B, C, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si, Cr, and Va in the carbon steels.

The datasheet given below provides more details about AISI 6150 alloy steel.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of AISI 6150 alloy steel is listed in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 97.095 - 97.72
Chromium, Cr 0.800 - 1.10
Manganese, Mn 0.7 - 0.9
Carbon, C 0.480 - 0.530
Silicon, Si 0.150 - 0.3
Vanadium, V ≥ 0.150
Sulfur, S ≤ 0.04
Phosphorous, P ≤ 0.0350

Physical Properties

The following table shows the physical properties of AISI 6150 alloy steel.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.85 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in³

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of AISI 6150 alloy steel are outlined in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength, ultimate 670 MPa 97200 psi
Tensile strength, yield 415 MPa 60200 psi
Izod impact 27 J 19.9 ft-lb
Modulus of elasticity 190-210 GPa 27557-30458 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Bulk modulus (typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Poissons ratio (calculated) 0.27 – 0.30 0.27-0.30
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 23% 23%
Hardness, Brinell 197 197
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 207 207
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 219 219
Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 92 92
Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness, value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only) 13 13
Machinability (annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100% machinability for AISI 1212 steel) 55 55

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of AISI 6150 alloy steel are outlined in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal conductivity 46.6 W/mK 323 BTU in/hr.ft2. °F

Other Designations

Other designations that are equivalent to AISI 6150 alloy steel include the following.

AMS 6448 AMS 6455C ASTM A519 (6150) SAE J404 (6150) SS 2230
AMS 6448C AMS 7301 ASTM A752 (6150) SAE J412 (6150) B.S. 735 A 50
AMS 6450 ASTM A29 (6150) ASTM A829 AFNOR 50 CV 4 B.S. En. 47
AMS 6450C ASTM A322 (6150) MIL S-8503 DIN 1.8159
AMS 6455 ASTM A331 (6150) SAE J1397 (6150) UNI 5OCrV 4

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

The machinability rating of 6150 alloy steel is 59.

Welding

AISI 6150 alloy steel can be welded using any common welding methods. However, preheating and post weld stress relieving have to performed for welding this steel.

Heat Treatment

AISI 6150 alloy steel is hardened at 871°C (1600°F). This steel is tempered followed by normalizing at 899°C (1650°F) and then air cooled.

Forging

Forging of 6150 alloy steel is performed at 1204°C (2200°F).

Annealing

AISI 6150 alloy steel is annealed at 843°C (1550°F) and then air cooled.

Applications

The following are the major applications of 6150 alloy steel:

  • Shafts
  • Gears
  • Pinions


Introduction

Stainless steel grade 420J2 is inexpensive and highly corrosion resistant steel. It has good corrosion resistance in mild atmosphere as well as domestic and industrial environments. It is also resistant to dilute nitric acid, carbonic acid, ammonia, crude oil, detergent solutions, vinegar, food acids, several petroleum products, and steam.

Stainless steel grade 420J2 is known to possess good strength and reasonable impact resistant properties in hardened and tempered conditions when compared with 440 grades.

The following sections will discuss in detail about stainless steel grade 420J2.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of stainless steel grade 420J2 is outlined in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Chromium, Cr 14
Nickel, Ni (optional) 1
Manganese, Mn 1
Silicon, Si 1
Phosphorus, P 0.04
Carbon, C 0.15-0.36
Sulfur, S 0.03
Iron, Fe Balance

Other Designations

Other designations that are equivalent to stainless steel grade 420J2 include the following.

  • BS970 Part3 1991 420S37
  • BS970 Part4 1970/73 420S45
  • BS970 1955 EN56C
  • ASTM A276-98b 420
  • EN56D
  • AISI 420
  • JIS G4303
  • SUS 420 J1
  • SAE 51420
  • SUS 420 J2

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

Stainless steel grade 420J2 is machinable both in hardened and tempered conditions such as turning, drilling, and bending; however it is recommended that machining in hardened condition should be avoided as far as possible.

Welding

Welding of stainless steel grade 420J2 is easy. It is recommended that welding in annealed or hardened and tempered conditions should be avoided as it causes formation of brittleness, resulting in cold cracking due to contraction stresses.

Pre-heating and inter-pass temperature control during welding, followed by very slow cooling and post-weld annealing are good measures to take to prevent cracking.

Annealing

Annealing of this material can be performed by heating uniformly to 840-900°C (1544-1652°F) and held until the temperature is uniform throughout the section. Soaking and cooling is required.

Heat Treatment

Stainless steel grade 420J2 has to be heated uniformly to 730-790°C (1346-1454°F) and held until temperature is uniform throughout the section.

Hardening

Stainless steel grade 420J2 can be hardened by heating 950-1020°C (1742-1868°F) and held until temperature is uniform throughout the section. This should be followed by quenching in oil or air cooling. Tempering should be done when it is slightly warm.

Applications

Stainless steel grade 420J2 is used in the following application areas:

  • Surgical instruments
  • Daggers and swords
  • Budget knives and diving knives
  • Haircutting scissors and domestic scissors

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